Gratitude

So it’s been just 1 year since I started this blog, posting regularly every 2 weeks. That was one of my intentions for 2018 and I am so glad I made it happen.  I have learned a lot more about headache management in the process.  I also learned that I do actually know a lot about it already.  Funny how that happens…..

My intentions for 2019 are to keep posting new content, maybe invite some guest writers to contribute. I also want to explore other avenues in the academic world and social media arena to get the word out to other pediatric providers about taking care of kids and teens with headache. To that end, I will have a poster at the National NAPNAP conference in March 2019 in New Orleans.  I have also started using Instagram (vkarianpnp), though I really do not know much about how to use it effectively. That will be another learning adventure. I am hoping my younger colleague will help me out : )

For this post, I thought I might present a list of a few of my favorite things, common occurrences that relate to taking care of kids with headaches. These examples are composites of several patients, not anyone specific.

Here they are, in no specific order:

  • A teen with new daily persistent headache (NDPH) for years comes in for a visit. This patient has attended school daily, engages in a headache-healthy lifestyle, physically and socially active. She is completely functional, working hard and just waiting for this headache to break. She has been working hard on self-care and turning on the relaxation response regularly. Today for the first time, she reports having 5-10 minutes of headache-free time several times/week. We have all waited a long time for this to happen, because it means the start of the end of her NDPH!
  • Tween migraineur who has struggled with an effective rescue plan comes in for a visit. They report that finally we have managed to develop a successful migraine rescue plan, which works consistently. We had gotten creative and it worked!
  • A college freshman comes in for her winter break visit. She had many fears about being away from home with migraines, despite my reassurance that she could handle it and would have more time for self-care. She reports to me: ‘You were right….college has been easier than high school. I didn’t believe you but now I know it’s true.” Score!
  • 15 year-old teen girl, with frequent migraine and difficulty managing a headache-healthy lifestyle, comes for a visit. She reports that her migraine headaches are occurring just once/week, instead of multiple times. What made the difference? “Well I finally figured out that lots of hydration actually works”, she says (after years of trying to get her to drink enough)!
  • Eighteen year-old male patient disabled by headache and mental health issues comes in for follow up. We have tried many medications, approaches such as partial programs, healthy lifestyle approaches. Headache is completely refractory; he is disabled and unable to function, not going to school. I have do not have much to offer, since the mental health issues are paramount, and he is unwilling to go inpatient for care. I ask why they have come in, when I feel I have nothing to offer. His mother responds “because you always listen, are willing to try anything, and you obviously care about us.”
  • Teenager with NDPH has tried everything under the sun without relief of symptoms. She undergoes a short duration lidocaine infusion and we speak on the phone 1 month later to check on the outcome. She reports no change in headache pain (I am disappointed). Then she reports that her mental fogginess is greatly decreased, she was able to get through her final exams without being totally wiped out, and has more endurance and energy. The first of many such reports from patients after lidocaine infusion and unexpected. There was no change in headache pain but other symptoms are better, which helps them function better. A small victory!
  • Another teenager with NDPH for 6 years and episodic migraine, who has had nothing but side effects from every medication ever tried, no positive effect with lidocaine infusion, and reluctant to try anything else comes for a visit. I propose trying occipital nerve and trigger point injections, because why not try a ‘Hail Mary’ pass at this point. We do it and when she comes back in 6 weeks, she reports the constant headache is no longer constant (still daily). And after 3-4 procedures, the chronic headache is pretty much gone until the effect of the injections starts to wear off. She still has migraine but had no ED visit for 9 months- a record. Who knew it would help?
  • Tween girl with chronic tension-type headaches comes for a regular follow up visit. She has considerable neck and shoulder tightness and at her last visit, I taught her the ‘Pinky ball’ exercises to self-massage and stretch. She was a reluctant participant at the time but her mother was interested. She reports today that her TTH are much less frequent now; she is using the pinky ball exercises every night before bed and thinks it has helped. Her mother nagged at her to do it at first but once she started to feel better, was doing it on her own. Tweens are such a tough audience!
  • Twelve year-old boy with chronic mixed-type headache, significant anxiety, ADHD and school avoidance, seen briefly when he stops by clinic during another visit. He had become very disabled, not going to school at all, and just spent 4 weeks in a pediatric pain rehabilitation program to get back in the game. His time in the PPRC was tough, changes were met with much resistance, and there were doubts whether he could maintain recovery when back in his home routine. He reports that he is back in school and going every day, saying he “would rather be in school than in the rehab program and does not want to come back”. The coordination between the PPRC and school resource personnel and the accommodations that were made allowed him to restart school in a positive way. He still had chronic headaches and anxiety but had learned how to manage and cope. Fingers crossed that it sticks!

Taking care of kids and teens with headache is a challenge. You often have to get creative to get improvement, looking at appropriate developmental approaches. You also have to understand that not everyone improves, due to many factors outside of your control.  The interplay between headache and mental health often slows progress. But sometimes improvement happens when we least expect it. That makes the work worthwhile.

Let me know if there are any topics you would like to see in the blog. Always open to suggestions.

Happy New Year!

Migraine case study, part 3

In this case study we’ll look at a fairly straightforward patient, with some twists and turns and decision points along the way.

Case Study: Patty is currently an 18 year-old teenage girl with a history of migraine headaches since age 9. You have been seeing her for years, and this is her story.  At the time of diagnosis, her migraines were infrequent (monthly at most), easy managed with a dose of ibuprofen and a nap. She was on no daily medications, and did a good job with her healthy headache hygiene. She is otherwise healthy except for exercise-induced asthma, just uses an inhaler as needed. She lives at home with her parents, 2 younger brothers, and several pets.  There is a strong family history of migraine

Around ages 11-12, things started to change, puberty was arriving. During this time her migraines were a bit more frequent, still manageable. Once her menses started, things really took off. Migraine frequency changed from monthly to weekly, and around her menses, they were more intense. She started to notice some aura-like symptoms, such as a black spot in her line of vision 30 minutes before the migraine started (50% of the time). She would also get more moody than usual 1 day before a migraine. She was also more symptomatic, having pain on average at 6-7/10NRS, accompanied by nausea with vomiting and lightheadedness, photophobia and phonophobia, fatigue, and that black visual spot. Ibuprofen was no longer effective and she often threw it up. Sleep was the only thing that helped, and the migraine lasted for several hours.  For lifestyle, she does sleep well at night, and eats a selective diet but no meal skipping.  Hydration is fair; she weighs 45kg and is drinking only 20oz/day and not drinking at school.  She is physically active with soccer and softball.

Decision point: Patty has reached puberty and her migraine headaches have become more frequent and symptomatic.  You decide that it is time to change her rescue plan, and consider a daily medication or at least a supplement.  The family would prefer not to start a medication, so you give them the option of starting daily magnesium 400mg daily as supplement. You also ask that she do a better job with hydration, at least 50 oz/day, and to bring water to school (and drink it).  You also reinforce her already healthy habits.  For rescue, you introduce a triptan, rizatriptan 5mg ODT (dissolving tab) to be taken when she notices her black spot before the migraine hits.  You also provide ondansetron 4mg ODT for her nausea, to be followed by naproxen 375mg.  She may take just the ondansetron and naproxen if no aura or the migraine is already started.  Since her migraines are just weekly, it is unlikely she will overuse medication but you do remind them that migraine analgesia should not be used more then 2-3 days/week. You ask them to return for a follow up appointment in 2 months to see how she is doing.

Follow up appointment visit: Patty is doing much better with her hydration, taking magnesium every day, and her rescue plan is working pretty well.  If she can take the rizatriptan quickly, many times she is able to abort her migraines.  And best of all, her migraines have reduced to 1-2 times/month; usually one of these times is around her menses.

Fast forward 2 years: Patty is here for her yearly check-up, age 14, in the summer before she starts high school. She is doing fairly well though her migraines are more frequent these days, back to once/week.  Her rescue medications are working well.  She has been using the Migraine Buddy app and tracking her headaches, has discovered that stress, caffeine and her menses are the biggest triggers.  She still takes magnesium but as not regularly, has backtracked a bit on hydration and has stopped playing sports.  She is also not sleeping well due to a busy mind, and her diet is slightly more adventurous, no meal skipping. She is particularly worried today about her migraines and starting high school, getting stressed out about it.  The family is thinking it might be a good idea to start a daily medication for migraine prevention.  Her health continues good, no recent illnesses or asthma flares.  Her weight is healthy, at 55kg.

Decision point: You agree with the family about trying a daily medication.  You consider your choices: cyproheptadine is not a good choice as she is beyond puberty and it will most likely cause too much weight gain; amitriptyline might be a good choice, might help with the anxiety  and sleep;  topiramate could also be chosen; Propranolol is not appropriate due to her asthma.  You choose amitriptyline 10mg at bedtime, may increase to 20mg after 1 month, and you check an EKG (normal).  You advise about side effects- sleepiness, mental clouding. She can continue magnesium if desired or try riboflavin B2 instead.  Lifestyle needs to be addressed and again you talk about hydration (60oz/day), sleep hygiene (put away that phone before bed), and getting more physical activity, since she is not doing sports now.  You also explore with the family ways to deal with stress, such as using a meditation app or exercise, seeing a counselor for CBT.  Patty is not really interested in counseling but she might try the Insight Timer app that you showed her how to use today. You ask them to return for a follow up appointment in 3 months to see how she is doing.

Follow up appointment visit: Patty is tolerating the amitriptyline at 20mg, no side effects and sleeping better.  She is having fewer migraine headaches back to twice/month. She did start hydrating better and now that school has restarted, she is in the habit of bringing a water bottle to school, empty when she gets home.  She is still not very active- none of her friends are active and she just wants to hang out with them.  The family does enforce better sleep hygiene with a set bedtime and phone out of her room at night. She is not in counseling and tried to do relaxation exercises but ‘found it a little to woo-woo’ for her liking.  Stress has not really been addressed, though the family is more aware of it now.  They are satisfied with her progress.

Fast forward, age 15, urgent care visit:  It’s winter and there’s a nasty GI virus going through the school, and Patty has gotten it. Patty has had a hard time, has been unable to tolerate fluids, vomiting and having diarrhea for the past 2 days.  And she just got her menses.  A perfect storm.  You see her in urgent care and she’s pale and miserable, and has a migraine on top of it all. She’s had a severe 9/10NRS headache for the past 12 hours, and is unable to take her rescue medications, take her daily amitriptyline or hydrate.

Decision point:  This is clearly not going to get better without intervention.  Fortunately, in your facility’s urgent care, patients can receive IV fluids and medications; otherwise you would need to send her to the local ED. An IV is started and she is given 500cc of saline to rehydrate to start.  Then, she receives a dose of IV ondansetron 4mg, and ketorolac 30mg, and perhaps Compazine 5mg.  Patty falls asleep and awakens in an hour feeling better, though still with a milder headache. You repeat the IV fluids and she is improved.  The family is comfortable taking her home.   You encourage them to continue hydration, electrolyte-rich fluids and antiemetics, and rest. In 1-2 days, all is well.

Fast forward, age 18, routine visit in December: Patty is doing well, in her senior year of high school, has gotten into her #1 choice for college. Her general health has been good, and apart from that 1 episode requiring urgent care, her migraine headaches have been manageable.  She remains on amitriptyline 25 mg nightly, and is having 2 migraines per month.  She does have a healthy lifestyle, doing well with hydration and reports that she has ‘finally learned that I have to drink a lot to prevent migraine’.  She enjoys being outdoors and hiking and kayaking now, and enjoys feeling physically strong and able.  She has a passion for the environment and wants to make a difference in the world through her environmental work in the future. She wants to talk about her menstrual migraines and also about birth control. She has always had bad periods with lots of cramps, and gets a very bad migraine on day #1.  She did some research (Dr. Google) and found out that some people with menstrual migraines and bad periods do better if they are on birth control.  Plus she has a new boyfriend, and has some other concerns as well. She continues to experience her aura of black spots, almost every migraine, and sometimes loses vision in one eye.  Rizatriptan is not as effective as it used to be, especially around her menses.

Decision point: This is a tricky situation, as women with migraine with aura have to be very careful with birth control choices. The general rule is to avoid estrogen-containing OCP, to avoid increased risk of stroke, at least as a start (see article in resources). Patty is correct that being on an OCP can help with dysmenorrhea and menstrual migraine.  You might suggest a progestin-only product, or refer her to a gynecologist.  Progestin-only OCP tend to be a little challenging as they often need to be taken at a consistent time, but there are other options as well such as depo-provera or progestin-only implant. One thing you can do today is switch her from rizatriptan to frovatriptan, the triptan that was specially developed for use with menstrual migraine.  Patty states she would be happy if her menstrual migraines were better; she might even want to stop taking amitriptyline. You and Patty decide that she will see a gynecologist about her birth control.  Once she is on a stable regimen, she can decide about stopping amitriptyline.  You ask her to consider waiting until summer break to do this, as she always has less migraine then and will have less stress.  She agrees and will come for a follow up during the summer.

So there you have it, an example of a typical migraineur from childhood through adolescence. The issues that present themselves here can all be well managed in the primary care setting. Most migraineurs end up in the ED at times, especially during times of illness and it may be unavoidable. These ED visits should not be considered failures. Rather they can be opportunities to fine tune rescue plans or reinforce a healthy lifestyle.   I always tell my patients that they will always be a migraineur, but their migraine headaches will change over their lifespan, for better and worse. Patients with migraine need education and empowerment to keep up with their self-care, and a caring provider to assist them.

 

Chronic migraine, what to do?

So your patient has developed chronic migraine, which is defined as 3-4 migraine per week, 15 migraine days per month, and is predictably miserable. Developing chronic migraine does happen in pediatrics, but it happens much more often in older teens and adults.  You’ve done what you could to prevent it from happening: did a course of steroids, tried increasing their daily medications, worked on lifestyle issues and even sent them to the ED for a cocktail to break the cycle. The ED visit did help but the effect was not sustained, and your patient is back with frequent migraine again. Now what do you do?

I would suggest that this is the time to refer them to a headache specialist, in a clinical setting where there are experienced providers (MD, NP, psychology), skilled at dealing with chronic headache.   Headache programs are usually staffed by a neurologist, or possibly a pain specialist (and rarely by someone who is both) and also a pain psychologist.  Not every neurologist is interested in caring for kids with headaches but pediatric headache programs can be found all across the country. If there are no pediatric headache specialists in your area, there may be an adult provider willing to see an adolescent .  For children, it might be hard to find an alternate provider.  Pediatric headache programs are most often found within a university teaching hospital setting. Some are found within neurology or within a pain (anesthesia) program.

When patients are referred to our headache program, the initial evaluation is done by the pain/neurologist and a pain psychologist.  There are some up front data collection, including psychological measures (FDI, RCMAS-2, CDI-2, fear of pain index, pain catastrophizing scale), done online, prior to the visit. Their medical records are also reviewed. The families see the neurologist first for full history and physical, and then they seen by the pain psychologist- patient and parents, separately and together.  Then a plan is formulated and reviewed with the family by one of our PNPs.  The plan is usually a combination of medications, lifestyle measures, complementary therapies and often a recommendation for psychology for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or physical therapy.

The overriding message to the patients and families is that this is condition that responds best to a multidisciplinary approach, each part of the plan is important. As you all know, each family is different and their expectations and culture vary widely.  Some families are more than happy to change medications, start supplements, even do PT for head and neck stretching and strengthening.  They may rather just focus on lifestyle measures, like working on hydration and sleep.  One of the hardest things to promote is psychology and CBT. Sometimes the family is well aware of mental health concerns, confirmed with the data from the psychological measures and meeting with our psychologist. They are open to the idea and welcome suggestions for where to seek counseling.

But it is often a hard sell to either the parent or patient or both. I encourage that even if there are no serious psychological challenges, having frequent migraine is a source of stress, and can get in the way of participating in life. Learning CBT can provide the teen with better ways to cope with the pain and underlying anxiety and stress. When meeting with particular reluctance/resistance on the part of the teenager, I emphasize that they are not going to ‘talk about your feelings’, but rather to learn concrete skills to use at times of increased pain and stress.  Sometimes the boys are more reluctant (but not always), and the suggestion to see a sports psychologist is better received. There are phone apps that can be used to augment or introduce the CBT exercises. In the end, there is no better way to engage in cognitive behavioral therapy than with a skilled therapist.

Treatments options for chronic migraine:  There are treatments available in a specialty clinic that are not easily obtained in the community. Providers are more familiar with different classes medications used for migraine.  We might be more comfortable in increasing dosing to a more therapeutic level or use medications in combination.  We might also introduce psychopharmacology to the treatment regimen, if indicated. Getting a good medication history is important to decide if the patient actually had an adequate clinical trial of a medication.  Sometimes patient will come in having tried 4-5 daily medications, over the course of 6 months.  Unless there are significant side effects, brief trials are not adequate to determine whether a medication would be helpful. Unfortunately, families and/or patients can have a ‘quick fix’ mentality and inability to tolerate any symptoms or pain, which leads to changing medications before really determining if they work.  Any medication used as a migraine preventive needs to be trialed for at least 2 months, starting low dose and increasing slowly as tolerated. This same approach should be applied to psychopharmacology as well.  This can be hard to communicate to families but necessary.

There are several inpatient options available for chronic or intractable migraine.  Patients can be admitted overnight for the typical migraine cocktail, using ketorolac IV q6h for 24hours, plus adjuncts and steroids. This can help to break a bad cycle, and generally well tolerated.  Also, IV Depakote can be added with mixed effects, followed by 3 days of oral depakote.

Another option is for the patient to be admitted for several days for IV DHE (6 doses, q8h).  This is less well tolerated, with side effects that need to be treated.  Nausea is significant and DHE is generally pretreated with metoclopramide and Benadryl, compazine, ondansetron or even lorazepam.  This can be effective in resetting the migraine pattern back to episodic. Not always pleasant but worth a try.

There are 2 outpatient injection procedures used to decrease the chronicity of migraine.  First there are occipital nerve and trigger point injections, done with local anesthesia (lidocaine and bupivacaine+/- steroids).  The occipital nerve can be inflamed. Trigger points (areas within muscles that are very irritable) will contribute to migraine, other headaches, and myofascial pain.  The area around the greater occipital nerve, as well as any trigger points in the upper cervical, trapezius muscles is infiltrated with local anesthetic.  Initially, patients feel ‘heavy-headed’ or numb, which passes by the next day or so.  The anesthetic medication blocks pain receptors within the nerves surrounding the muscle, thus reducing the pain signals sent to the brain.  Your patient may feel immediate relief of pain, and then (hopefully) a reduction in incidence of migraine.  Some patients have significant improvement with this procedure; some have no benefit at all.  It is generally well tolerated.

Botox© is the only treatment approved by the FDA for chronic migraine for patients over 18 years.  There are strict criteria for its use and generally insurance companies stick to the rules. We have been able to get approval for a few 16 year olds but this is rare. The criteria includes: 15 migraine days/month, migraines lasting up to 4 hours, failure of several preventive and rescue medications. It is not approved for episodic migraine. Another office procedure, the patient will have 155units of Botox© injected via a 30G needle in 31 specific locations on the face, cranium and neck/shoulders, every 3 months. As you can imagine, this is not the easiest thing for a teenager to go through, causing distress and tears. However, in our practice, we have found it to be fairly effective, with decrease in migraine frequency and intensity in many patients, especially after the 2nd procedure.  It is also generally well tolerated.  Most kids tell me that they hate getting the Botox©, but the results make it worth it.  They joke that they know when it’s time to come back when they move their eyebrows again. I was initially skeptical, wondering if it really worked.  But after performing the procedure many times now and seeing the results, almost all positive, I have become a believer.  There is nothing better than getting kids back to functioning.

Your role: So what happens after your patient is seeing a headache specialist? Does this mean you no longer have a role in managing your patient’s migraines? Of course not! As a headache specialist, I enjoy partnering with primary care providers in the overall care of these patients. The families may come from far away, and only come in to see us every 3-6 months. Their community provider is crucial in supporting the families during the difficult time of chronic migraine. We welcome contact, questions and updates.  These families need as much support as they can get, to keep OUR patient functioning, and avoid disability.

So that’s it for now about migraine. I plan to do a case study next to show migraine management in practice.

Daily medications for migraine, part 1

So we have talked about lifestyle habits to prevent migraines, all the things your patient can do to prevent migraines. But your patient is still having frequent migraines or the migraines are significantly impacting the patient’s functioning.  When do you consider adding a daily medication to prevent migraines? The mark I use for deciding when a preventive medication is needed is one migraine/week.  For me, that is when the conversation needs to start.   Any less than that, the kids may be unnecessarily exposed to medication effects and side effects.

And not every kid/teen needs to take a daily preventive medication, even when they have 1 migraine per week. It really depends on how much impact that migraine is having. Are they missing school with every migraine?  Does the migraine last for several days, leading to even more missed school?  Are they missing out on desired activities, like sports, scouts, music or dance? Are they missing out on time with friends and family? Does the patient want to try a daily medication? Is the family in favor or opposed to it? It is a choice that is made after discussion with everyone involved.

However, when the patient is having more than 1 migraine per week, it is a good idea to consider a daily medication, as it is likely that migraine is taking a toll of the patient and family. What you choose depends on the age of the patient and what other issues they are challenged with. Do you start with a prescribed medication or supplements/vitamins?

Supplements:  If you and/or the family are on the fence about starting a medication, a nice intervention to add is a supplement known to help headaches.  We commonly will recommend magnesium, riboflavin or Coenzyme Q10.  I always advocate for using a single product at a time, taking it for at least 3 months and evaluating effectiveness.  Again, you need to keep the good data.   There are many combination products on the market. I have seen one which contains 10 supplements in one tab!  The problem with combination products is that you are unable to figure out what exactly is helping, therefore are ‘married’ to a particular supplement formulation.  And you know that’s going to end up being expensive. A good quality supplement, which can be obtained at the local pharmacy, is totally adequate to try and there are often opportunities to save money on them. These supplements are well tolerated and can be effective.   Here’s a link: Supplements That Help Headaches

One supplement to mention is butterbur, a shrub grown in Europe and Asia, and used as a migraine preventive and for allergies. The concerns with butterbur are that it can be toxic to the liver; the unprocessed butterbur contains chemicals called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which can cause liver damage. The only butterbur product you should use is labeled ‘PA- free’, meaning the PA has been processed to remove it. It is unlikely that you would ever find butterbur not labeled this way. Petadolex is the most common butterbur on the market and is PA-free. There are side effects as well such as belching and GI issues, and allergy and asthma, and people allergic to ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigold and daisies should avoid it. Butterbur has fallen out of favor due to report of hepatic issues, though a recent paper has refuted that claim. I have a few patients on it, tolerate it well, and find it helpful, when prescribed medications have not been. I check their LFTs yearly just to be sure.  I mention it here to further your knowledge, as Dr. Google will be sure to mention it, when your families are searching for migraine remedies.

Medications: The aim of daily preventive medication is to decrease the frequency, duration and severity of migraines. Other benefits can include improving responsiveness to the rescue medications and preventing migraines from becoming chronic (vs. episodic). Your choice of medication depends on the patient’s age, medical history/comorbidities, and particular circumstances. Generally all migraine medications for kids and teens are dosed low and titrated up in dose as needed and tolerated.  Groups of medications commonly used for migraine prevention are antihistamines (cyproheptadine), tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, nortriptyline), anticonvulsants (topiramate, zonisamide, gabapentin), beta blockers (propranolol) or calcium channel blockers (verapamil).

Before we talk about the pros and cons of each group of medications, I would like to bring up an interesting research study you may or may not be aware of. A few years ago, the headache program at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital undertook a multi-site double blind medication trial, comparing amitriptyline, topiramate and placebo, for the prevention of migraine in children ages 8-17 years, the CHAMPS study.  The headache program I work in participated in this research project. The study was unusual because it was double blind (no one knew which medication each subject was taking), and it included placebo as one of the treatment arms.  The research study was terminated early because the findings showed no difference between the 3 treatments arms.  The 2 medications both had more side effects than placebo, and there were also serious adverse events in each group. They conclude that “the risk to benefit profile of the two most commonly used preventive medications does not suggest their use as first-line intervention for pediatric migraine.” Basically, they found that placebo was as good as or better than medications and had fewer side effects.  Here’s link to their results: CHAMPS clinical trial publication

This of course presents a dilemma to pediatric providers caring for kids with headaches. You can’t exactly prescribe a placebo and with the family knowing you are doing that, it negates the placebo effect. It is certainly another reason to continue doing research into pediatric headache, and to encourage our families to participate.  We are doing a lot of research at our center, brain imaging, studies looking at the psychological factors impacting episodic and chronic pain, and clinical protocols.  Our families are very interested in participating with research, as they see the value for themselves and for others.

When thinking about daily medications, we all need to be aware that studies are often not done on the pediatric population, just extrapolated from adult data. This is all the more reason to be cautious in prescribing, and encourage appropriate lifestyle measures to decrease the likelihood of migraine.

In my next post, I will review commonly used migraine preventive medications. Some pediatric providers may not feel comfortable starting a daily migraine preventive. But the judicious use of a low dose of medication may really help your patients with their migraines. It may prevent episodic migraine from becoming chronic, and prevent a functioning patient from becoming disabled.  These are all worthy efforts.